Ph.D., Columbia, 1988
Professor Bernhard specializes in comparative politics. His interests include democratization, development, comparative historical analysis, and European politics. His main lines of research have included the role of civil society in processes of democratization, the political economy of democratic survival, the politics and ramifications of institutional choice in new democracies, and paths from dictatorship to democracy in late-democratizing European countries. He is currently working on papers on the role of the state in development, the impact of revolution on the state’s war-making capacity, the effect of how democracy is measured on findings in the literature on regimes and conflict, and the legacies of fascism and communism for democratic political systems.